Linux Tutorial Everything You Need to Know – Linux for Beginners

Welcome To the Most Comprehensive Linux tutorial online. In this rather very long article, requested by Cyndra, we shall summarize everything you need to know about Linux. We shall look at what Linux is, the most common Linux distributions (Distros) among others. I shall also follow up this article with a series of Linux tutorials on how to do thousands of tasks on Linux.


Many know Linux as bare Oparating System (OS). Well this is not completely wrong but it tells half the story. Technically, Linux is a genealogy of tens of open-source Unix-similar core operating systems based on the Linux kernel. The entire Linux project is a 1991 child of then, Finnish student Linus Torvalds. Linus first released the OS on September 17, 1991. Linux is the Number one most preferred server operating systems in the world and among the top five most used Operating Systems In the world. Despite some variations, Linux is customarily packaged in a Linux distribution.

The Linux kernel, as well as additional system software and libraries, some of them made available by the GNU Project, are all included in the distributions. Many Linux versions have the word “Linux” in their name, while the Free Software Foundation prefers to refer to their operating system as “GNU/Linux“.

Linux has been ported to more platforms than any other operating system since it was first created for personal computers using Intel x86 architecture. As of August 2022, Linux, including the Linux based Android OS, had the highest installations of any general-purpose operating system in the world. Android, remains the most dominant operating system on smartphones and other portable devices.

At the time of writing this article, only about 2.3 percent of desktop computers run Linux. The Chromebook, which runs Chrome OS based on the Linux kernel, dominates the US K–12 education market and accounts for about 20 percent of sub–$300 laptop sales in the US. As the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers, Linux also dominates other large-scale computing platforms including mainframe computers.

Linux is the leading operating system on servers. Approximately 96.4% of the top 1 million web servers are being powered by Linux operating systems.

Common Linux Distributions

Debian, Fedora Linux, CentOS, Kali Linux, Linux Mint, and Ubuntu are probably the most popular standard Linux distributions in the world. Ubuntu actually has numerous distinct distributions and customizations. Some of the Ubuntu Distros including Lubuntu and Xubuntu. Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SUSE Linux Enterprise are among the most deployed commercial distributions.

Desktop Linux distributions often come with a desktop environment like GNOME or KDE Plasma. There are also window-like systems like X11 or Wayland. Distributions designed for servers may completely exclude graphics or contain a LAMP-style solution stack instead. I can not say how many distributions there are in the world. Anyone may produce a distribution for any use because Linux is freely redistributable. The operating system boasts of being the most prominent open-source software collaboration. The source code may be used, modified and distributed commercially or for personal use by anyone under the GNU General Public License (GPL).

Programming Languages Supported.

Most programming languages directly or through third-party community ports support Linux. The GNU toolchain contains the original development tools for building both Linux applications and operating system programs. The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) and the GNU Build System are two examples. GCC includes compilers for Ada, C, C++, Go, and Fortran, among others. Many programming languages, including PHP, Perl, Ruby, Python, Java, Go, Rust, and Haskell, have a cross-platform reference implementation that supports Linux. The LLVM project offers a cross-platform open-source compiler for a variety of languages. The Intel C++ Compiler, Sun Studio, and IBM XL C/C++ Compiler are examples of proprietary Linux compilers. Visual Basic is supported in Gambas, FreeBASIC, and XBasic, as well as QuickBASIC or Turbo BASIC as QB64.

Majority of Linux Distros also include Python, Ruby, PHP and Perl. Linux also supports C# using Mono plus Vala, and Scheme, though they are less common. Many GNU programs can be compiled with optional Guile bindings. Linux supports a variety of Java virtual machines and development kits, including the original Sun Microsystems JVM (HotSpot), IBM’s J2SE RE, and numerous open-source projects such as Kaffe and JikesRVM.

How to Choose a Linux Distribution

One of the most confusing things to beginners is that there are many Linux Distros and choosing the right one for you can be quite mind boggling. There three key questions you ought to ask your self when deciding which Linux Distribution is right for you.

  1. Would you prefer the most recent available packages or the stable packages
  2. Do you require a Debian-derived or a Red Hat ecosystem.
  3. Will you be developing primarily for the cloud, the desktop, or in a container,?

To help you understand the options you have, I will try to summerise some of the most common distributions for you.

Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Red Hat Enterprise Linux, also known as RHEL, is the most widely used commercially supported Linux distribution. Unlike the Debian family, it employs.rpm packages and a package manager known as dnf, as well as its own ecosystem of tools. Red Hat is only used where there is a commercial support agreement in place for licensing reasons.


Ubuntu is a well-known Linux distribution for both servers and desktop computers. Ubuntu versions are released every six months, with new long-term support versions released every two years and supported for five years. Because of its popularity, most educational content about Linux reflects Ubuntu, and the breadth of available support is a significant point in its favor. For most learners who are new to Linux, this might be a great option because of the tons of support available on online communities like this one!


Debian is an upstream of Ubuntu. This means that its core architectural decisions usually influence Ubuntu releases. In most cases, the two employ the same. As you might already know, Ubuntu uses the .deb package format and the apt package manager. Due to its conservative packaging choices and lack of commercial support, Debian is not as popular for production servers. Many users, however, prefer Debian because of its portability and use as a foundation for many other Linux distributions on various platforms, including Raspbian, the most popular Raspberry Pi OS.


Fedora Linux is Red Hat’s upstream distribution. Just like Ubuntu, Fedora is used in both desktop and server environments. Fedora is the default development home for most RHEL ecosystem packages, as well as the Gnome desktop environment, which is used by Ubuntu and others as a de facto.

Rocky Linux

Rocky Linux is a descendant of Red Hat in the same way that Ubuntu is a descendant of Debian, and like most other Linux distributions, it is free to use, making it a popular choice for users who have adopted Red Hat tooling but may not be using Red Hat’s commercial support. Previously, a distribution called CentOS served the same purpose as Rocky Linux, but it is no longer supported. Rocky Linux versions are closely related to RHEL versions, and most documentation is interchangeable.

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